Evolution of GDP per Capita , 1870-2010

Evolution of Total Population, 1500-2000

Evolution of Total Urban Population, 1500-2000

Evolution of Political Competition, 1914-2000

Evolution of Latent Democracy Variable, 1914-2000

Evolution of Competitiveness of Participations (PARCOMP), 1914-2012

Raking and performance of all available indicators for the entire period covered by the data (download all indicators)

Period Best performing Worst performing Best ranking Worst ranking
1820-1869 23 Total Num. of Goats Sheep per Capita Goats per Capita Biodiversity -
1870-1919 38 GDP per Capita Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
Income Inequality Biodiversity -
1920-1959 41 Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
Total SO2 Emissions Goats per Capita Total Cropland
1960-2010 49 Executive Constraints
Polity2 Index Openness of Executive
Recruitment (XROPEN)
Unified Democracy
Scores (UDS)
Overall     54 Total Num. of Pigs Pasture per Capita Goats per Capita Biodiversity -

Evolution of Regulation of Participation (PARREG), 1914-2012

Evolution of Political Participation, 1914-2000

Evolution of Polity2 Index, 1914-2012

Evolution of Polyarchy, 1914-2000

Evolution of Cattle per Capita, 1500-2010


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2013 (27)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2012 (34)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2013 (20)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2013 (40)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2013 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2013 (38)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.