A component of the polityIV measure


Marhsall, M.G., Gurr, T.R., Jaggers, K

Production date



Regulation of Participation, 1 - Unregulated (Political participation is fluid; there are no enduring national political organizations and no systematic regime controls on political activity), 2 -Multiple Identity (There are relatively stable and enduring political groups which compete for political influence at the national level - parties, regional groups, or ethnic groups, not necessarily elected - but there are few, recognized overlapping (common) interests), 3 - Sectarian (Political demands are characterized by incompatible interests and intransigent posturing among multiple identity groups and oscillate more or less regularly between intense factionalism and government favoritism), 4 - Restricted: Some organized political participation is permitted without intense factionalism but significant groups, issues, and/or types of conventional participation are regularly excluded from the political process, 5 - Regulated: Relatively stable and enduring political groups regularly compete for political influence and positions with little use of coercion Other codes: -66 - interruption period (e.g. occupation by foreign forces), -77 - interregnum period (collapse of central authority), -88 - transition period (a period within new institutions, policies are introduced)


democracy, politics, institutions, polityIV

Time period


Geographical coverage

164 countries

Methodologies used for data collection and processing

Secondary literature and expert judgement

Period of collection


Data collectors


iii. Estimates iv. Conjectures

General references

As specified in



Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2016 (28)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2016 (35)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2016 (21)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2018 (38)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2018 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2018 (35)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.