Evolution of GDP per Capita , 1690-2016

Evolution of Total Population, 1650-2000

Evolution of Life Expectancy at Birth (Total), 1899-2009

Evolution of Working week in manufacturing, 1870-2008

Evolution of Inflation, 1904-2000

Evolution of Average Years of Education, 1870-2010

Raking and performance of all available indicators for the entire period covered by the data (download all indicators)

Period Best performing Worst performing Best ranking Worst ranking
1820-1869 27 Total Population Sheep per Capita Cattle per Capita Cropland per Capita
1870-1919 45 Copper Production Total SO2 Emissions Cattle per Capita Cropland per Capita
1920-1959 49 Total Num. of Goats Regulation of
Participation (PARREG)
Gender Equality
of Numeracy
Cropland per Capita
1960-2010 50 Gold Production Total CO2 Emissions Nickel Production Unified Democracy
Scores (UDS)
Overall     57 N/A N/A Cattle per Capita Cropland per Capita

Evolution of Educational Inequality Gini Coefficient, 1910-2010

Evolution of Total Urban Population, 1500-2000

Evolution of Political Competition, 1902-1997

Evolution of Latent Democracy Variable, 1902-1997

Evolution of Competitiveness of Participations (PARCOMP), 1902-2012


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2016 (28)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2016 (35)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2016 (21)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2018 (38)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2018 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2018 (35)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.