A component of the polityIV measure


Marhsall, M.G., Gurr, T.R., Jaggers, K

Production date



Executive Constraints, 1 - Unlimited Authority (there are no regular limitations on the executive's actions), 2 - Intermediate Category, 3 - Slight to Moderate Limitation on Executive Authority (There are some real but limited restraints on the executive), 4- Intermediate category, 5 - Substantial Limitations on Executive Authority (The executive has more effective authority than any accountability group but is subject to substantial constraints by them), 6 - Intermediate category, 7 - Executive Parity or Subordination (Accountability groups have effective authority equal to or greater than the executive in most areas of activity) Other codes: -66 - interruption period (e.g. occupation by foreign forces), -77 - interregnum period (collapse of central authority), -88 - transition period (a period within new institutions, policies are introduced)


democracy, politics, institutions, polityIV

Time period


Geographical coverage

164 countries

Methodologies used for data collection and processing

Secondary literature and expert judgement

Period of collection


Data collectors


iii. Estimates iv. Conjectures

General references

As specified in



Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2016 (28)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2016 (35)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2016 (21)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2018 (38)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2018 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2018 (35)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.