The original source for carbon dioxide emissions are the estimates of the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC; Marland et al, 2004). Global, regional, and national annual estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring have been calculated, some as far back as 1751 and extrapolated back to 1500. These estimates, derived primarily from energy statistics published by the United Nations, were calculated using the methods of Marland and Rotty (1984). Cement production estimates from the U.S. Department of Interior's Bureau of Mines were used to estimate CO2 emitted during cement production. Emissions from gas flaring were derived primarily from U.N. data but were supplemented with data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration, Rotty (1974), and with a few national estimates provided by G. Marland. Timeseries are regularly updated till current time, see also the Global Carbon Project (http://www.globalcarbonproject.org/)


Kees Klein Goldewijk, Utrecht University

Production date



Total fossil fuel CO2 emissions


Fossil fuel, CO2, emissions

Time period

1500 -2000

Geographical coverage


Methodologies used for data collection and processing

Reconstruction of emissions based on historical energy statistics and simple emission factors

Period of collection

See references

Data collectors

CDIAC (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/)

Good, internationally is CDIAC the recognized source for this

General references

CDIAC ( HYPERLINK "http://cdiac.ornl.gov/" http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ )

Boden, T.A., G. Marland, and R.J. Andres. 2011. Global, Regional, and

National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis

Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak

Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2011




Andres, R.J., D.J. Fielding, G. Marland, T.A. Boden, and N. Kumar. 1999.

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751-1950. Tellus


Boden, T.A., G. Marland, and R. J. Andres. 1995. Estimates of global,

regional, and national annual CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning,

hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950-1992. ORNL/CDIAC-90,

NDP-30/R6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak

Ridge, Tennessee.

Marland, G., and R.M. Rotty. 1984. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil

fuels: A procedure for estimation and results for 1950-82. Tellus


Etemad, B., J. Luciani, P. Bairoch, and J.-C. Toutain. 1991. World

Energy Production 1800-1985. Librarie DROZ, Switzerland.

Mitchell, B.R. 1983. International Historical Statistics: The Americas

and Australasia 1750-1988. pgs. 522-525. Gale Research Company, Detroit,

United States.

Mitchell, B.R. 1992. International Historical Statistics: Europe

1750-1988. pgs. 465-485. Stockton Press, New York, United States.

Mitchell, B.R. 1993. International Historical Statistics: The Americas

1750-1988. pgs. 405-414. Stockton Press, New York, United States.

Mitchell, B.R. 1995. International Historical Statistics: Africa, Asia

and Oceania 1750-1988. pgs. 490-497. Stockton Press, New York, United


Rotty, R.M. 1974. First estimates of global flaring of natural gas.

Atmospheric Environment 8:681-86.

United Nations. 2010. 2008 Energy Statistics Yearbook. United Nations

Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis,

Statistics Division, New York.

U.S. Department of Energy. 1994. International Energy Annual 1994.

DOE/EIA-0219(91). Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy

Markets and End Use, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Geological Survey. 2010. 2008 Minerals Yearbook - Cement H.G. van

Oss (Ed.), U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey,

Reston, Virginia.


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2016 (28)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2016 (35)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2016 (21)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2018 (38)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2018 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2018 (35)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.