Evolution of GDP per Capita , 1855-2016

Evolution of Total Population, 1800-2000

Evolution of Life Expectancy at Birth (Total), 1897-2011

Evolution of Working week in manufacturing, 1927-2008

Evolution of Numeracy (Total), 1820-1940

Evolution of Homicide Rates, 1920-2010

Raking and performance of all available indicators for the entire period covered by the data (download all indicators)

Period Best performing Worst performing Best ranking Worst ranking
1820-1869 18 Gender Equality
of Numeracy
Sheep per Capita Numeracy (Total) Cattle per Capita
1870-1919 32 Total Num. of Pigs Gender Equality
of Numeracy
Height Pasture per Capita
1920-1959 41 Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
Total CO2 Emissions Income Inequality Total Pasture
1960-2010 55 Total Pasture Cattle per Capita Pigs per Capita Total Pasture
Overall     61 Total Cattle Sheep per Capita Cropland per Capita Total Pasture

Evolution of Gender Equality of Numeracy, 1820-1930

Evolution of Total Urban Population, 1500-2000

Evolution of Political Competition, 1918-2000

Evolution of Latent Democracy Variable, 1919-2000

Evolution of Competitiveness of Participations (PARCOMP), 1917-2012


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2016 (28)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2016 (35)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2016 (21)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2018 (38)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2018 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2018 (35)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.