Evolution of GDP per Capita , 1920-2016

Evolution of Total Population, 1750-2000

Evolution of Life Expectancy at Birth (Total), 1900-2009

Evolution of Global Extreme Poverty Cost of Basic Needs, 1820-2018

Evolution of Total Gross Central Government Debt as a Percentage of GDP, 1922-2009

Evolution of Average Years of Education, 1870-2010

Raking and performance of all available indicators for the entire period covered by the data (download all indicators)

Period Best performing Worst performing Best ranking Worst ranking
1820-1869 39 Total Pasture Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
Pigs per Capita Global Extreme
Poverty Dollar
a Day
1870-1919 47 Polity2 Index Latent Democracy Variable SO2 Emissions
per Capita
Global Extreme
Poverty Cost of
Basic Needs

Global Extreme
Poverty Dollar
a Day
1920-1959 56 Political Competition Total SO2 Emissions Total Gross Central
Government Debt as a
Percentage of GDP
Life Expectancy
at Birth (Total)
1960-2010 64 Gold Production Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
Total Gross Central
Government Debt as a
Percentage of GDP
Homicide Rates
Overall     68 N/A N/A Cropland per Capita Biodiversity -

Evolution of Global Extreme Poverty Dollar a Day, 1820-2018

Evolution of Educational Inequality Gini Coefficient, 1895-2010

Evolution of Total Urban Population, 1500-2000

Evolution of Political Competition, 1839-2000

Evolution of Latent Democracy Variable, 1850-2000


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2016 (28)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2016 (35)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2016 (21)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2018 (38)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2018 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2018 (35)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.