Evolution of GDP per Capita , 1820-2010

Evolution of Total Population, 1500-2000

Evolution of Height, 1860-1990

Evolution of Income Inequality, 1820-2000

Evolution of Inflation, 1821-2010

Evolution of Total Gross Central Government Debt as a Percentage of GDP, 1913-2009

Raking and performance of all available indicators for the entire period covered by the data (download all indicators)

Period Best performing Worst performing Best ranking Worst ranking
1820-1869 41 Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
Sheep per Capita Regulation of Chief
Executive Recruitment (XRREG)
Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
1870-1919 47 Inflation Sheep per Capita Regulation of Chief
Executive Recruitment (XRREG)
Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
1920-1959 62 Tungsten Production Total SO2 Emissions Tin Production Pasture per Capita
1960-2010 65 Manganese Production Number of
Days Lost in
Labour Disputes
Infant Mortality
Gender-equal Inheritance
Pasture per Capita
Overall     69 Total Num. of Goats Sheep per Capita Total Num. of Pigs Pasture per Capita

Evolution of Average Years of Education, 1870-2010

Evolution of Labourers Real Wage, 1915-2006

Evolution of Educational Inequality Gini Coefficient, 1925-2010

Evolution of Total Urban Population, 1500-2000

Evolution of Political Competition, 1810-2000


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2013 (27)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2012 (34)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2013 (20)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2013 (40)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2013 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2013 (38)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.