This paper is supplement to the database on world inflation (annual percentage change) in the light of the CLIO-INFRA project. It specifies which data point comes from which source


De Zwart, Pim, International Institute of Social History

Production date



Inflation, annual percentage change


Prices, inflation, world, inequality, economy

Time period


Geographical coverage


Methodologies used for data collection and processing

Combining data from all available sources, a most complete database of inflation in the world was created. Most of the data was found online, while the time-series for pre-twentieth century Ceylon and South Africa stem from my own research on prices in the archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC)

Period of collection


Data collectors

Pim de Zwart, International Institute of Social History - Carmen M. Reinhart, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington DC - Kenneth S. Rogoff, Harvard University, Cambridge MA

Indication of the quality of the data based on the following categories: i. Central statistical agencies Most data for the 20th century are the result of work of central statistical agencies. ii. Historical reconstructions For the earlier centuries: data are the result of historical reconstructions making use of the methods and the broad range of data that are also used by central statistical agencies

General references

Arroyo Abad, Leticia, Elwyn Davies and Jan Luiten van Zanden, `Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru', IISG Historical Prices and Wages, http://www.iisg.nl/hpw

De Zwart, Pim, `Population, Labour and Living Standards in early modern Ceylon: an Empirical Contribution to the Divergence Debate' Mimeo (2011).

De Zwart, Pim, `Real wages at the Cape of Good Hope: a long-term perspective, 1652-1912', CGEH Working Paper (August 2011).

Montevideo-Oxford Latin American Economic History Database: http://oxlad.qeh.ox.ac.uk/

Reinhart, Carmen M., and Kenneth S. Rogoff, `From Financial Crash to Debt Crisis', American Economic Review 101 (2011) 1676-1706.

Database on the website: http://www.carmenreinhart.com/data/

Santing, Coos, `Inflation 1800-2000', IISG Historical Prices and Wages: http://www.iisg.nl/hpw.

This also contains data from the IMF International Financial Statistics.

World Bank: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2016 (28)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2016 (35)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2016 (21)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2018 (38)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2018 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2018 (35)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.