A binary variable denoting if a country in a particular year had a gold standard or not


Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff

Production date



A binary variable denoting if a country in a particular year had a gold standard or not


gold standard, currency

Time period


Geographical coverage

71 countries

Methodologies used for data collection and processing

Secondary literature and expert judgement

Period of collection


Data collectors


ii. Historical reconstructions

General references

Reinhart, Camen M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff, "From Financial Crash to Debt Crisis," NBER Working Paper 15795, March 2010. Forthcoming in American Economic Review.

Bordo, Michael D. "The Gold Standard, Bretton Woods and Other Monetary Regimes: A Historical Appraisal." Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review 75, no. 2 (1993): 123-91.

Bordo, Michael D., and Anna J. Schwartz, eds. A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Director of the Mint. The Monetary Systems of the Principal Countries of the World, 1913. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1913.

Eichengreen, Barry, Golden Fetters The Gold Standard and the Great Depression 1919-1939, (New York: Oxford University Press), 1992.

League of Nations Various years. World Economic Survey, 1926 - 1944. Geneva: League of Nations.

Nurkse, Ragnar. International Currency Experience: Lessons of the Inter-War Period. Geneva: League of Nations, 1944.

Officer, Lawrence. 2001. Gold Standard, EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. October 1. Electronic version at http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/officer.gold.standard

Pick, Franz, and René Sédillot (1971). All the Monies of the World: A Chronicle of Currency Values, (Pick Publishing Corporation, New York).

Reinhart, Carmen M., and Kenneth S. Rogoff 2002. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation." NBER Working Paper 8963. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass. May.

Reinhart, Carmen M., and Kenneth S. Rogoff . 2004. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation." Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (1): February. Pp. 1 - 48.


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2016 (28)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2016 (35)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2016 (21)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2018 (38)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2018 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2018 (35)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.