Evolution of Total Population , 1800-2000

Evolution of Educational Inequality Gini Coefficient, 1925-2010

Evolution of Cattle per Capita, 1500-2010

Evolution of Cropland per Capita, 1500-2010

Evolution of Goats per Capita, 1500-2010

Evolution of Biodiversity - naturalness, 1500-2010

Raking and performance of all available indicators for the entire period covered by the data (download all indicators)

Period Best performing Worst performing Best ranking Worst ranking
1820-1869 19 Total Population Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
Cropland per Capita Biodiversity -
1870-1919 21 Total Population Total SO2 Emissions Gender Equality
of Numeracy
Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
1920-1959 29 Average Years
of Education
Total SO2 Emissions Cropland per Capita
SO2 Emissions
per Capita

Total SO2 Emissions
Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
1960-2010 49 Average Years
of Education
Total CO2 Emissions Total SO2 Emissions Composite Measure
of Wellbeing
Overall     54 Total Num. of Goats Sheep per Capita Cropland per Capita Biodiversity -

Evolution of SO2 Emissions per Capita, 1850-2000

Evolution of Total SO2 Emissions, 1850-2000

Evolution of Armed conflicts (Internal), 1500-2000

Evolution of Armed Conflicts (International), 1500-2000

Evolution of Composite Measure of Wellbeing, 1820-2000


Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2013 (27)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2012 (34)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2013 (20)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2013 (40)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2013 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2013 (38)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.